Installing Tomcat 7
Because we're using Java 7, we need to install a version of Tomcat that has been compiled with Java 7. Otherwise, you'll encounter the following error when deploying OpenBoxes.
Tomcat 7 in the APT repository was compiled with Java 8, which causes the aforementioned error during deployment.
- Go to the Tomcat Downloads page
- Choose a mirror (or leave the default)
- Right-click on the Core tar.gz link (paste in step 3 below)
Download and unpack
$ cd /opt $ sudo wget http://mirror.metrocast.net/apache/tomcat/tomcat-7/v7.0.94/bin/apache-tomcat-7.0.94.tar.gz $ sudo tar xvzf apache-tomcat-7.0.94.tar.gz $ ln -s /opt/apache-tomcat-7.0.94 tomcat $ rm apache-tomcat-7.0.94.tar.gz
Create user, group and change permissions
$ sudo groupadd tomcat $ sudo useradd -s /bin/false -g tomcat -d /opt/tomcat tomcat $ sudo chown -R tomcat:tomcat /opt/apache-tomcat-7.0.94 # sudo chmod +x /opt/tomcat/bin/*.sh
Determine Java JRE path
Copy and paste the output. It will be used to replace
<PASTE_PATH_TO_JRE_HERE> in tomcat.service.
$ readlink -f /etc/alternatives/java /usr/lib/jvm/zulu-7-amd64/jre/bin/java
Copy the path up to
/bin/java. For example,
sudo vi /etc/systemd/system/tomcat.service
[Unit] Description=Apache Tomcat Web Application Container After=network.target [Service] Type=forking Environment=JAVA_HOME=<PASTE_PATH_TO_JRE_HERE> Environment=CATALINA_PID=/opt/tomcat/temp/tomcat.pid Environment=CATALINA_HOME=/opt/tomcat Environment=CATALINA_BASE=/opt/tomcat Environment='CATALINA_OPTS=-Xms1024m -Xmx1024m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m -server -XX:+UseParallelGC' Environment='JAVA_OPTS=-Djava.awt.headless=true -Djava.security.egd=file:/dev/./urandom' ExecStart=/opt/tomcat/bin/startup.sh ExecStop=/opt/tomcat/bin/shutdown.sh User=tomcat Group=tomcat UMask=0007 RestartSec=10 Restart=always [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
You will likely encounter OutOfMemoryErrors with Tomcat's default memory settings.
You may be able to get away with using 256m as the max heap size, but 512m is a good setting, even for production environments. Using more memory will allow you to cache more data, but does not always result in a better performing application. So there's no need in getting carried away. We've been using about 1024m in production for over a year and that suits us fine.
If you are in a limited memory environment (like an EC2 t2.micro which only has 1GB of memory) you will need to reduce your memory settings a little more.
Environment='CATALINA_OPTS=-Xms128m -Xmx256m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m -Djava.security.egd=file:/dev/./urandom -server -XX:+UseParallelGC'
Unfortunately, with so little memory allocated you will probably run into several types of OutOfMemoryError issues (see Troublshooting section below).
Make Tomcat service executable
chmod +x /etc/systemd/system/tomcat.service
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start tomcat
Enable Tomcat service
sudo systemctl enable tomcat
systemctl start tomcat systemctl stop tomcat systemctl status tomcat
At this point I generally go back to using the Ubuntu's
service wrapper which abstracts the underlying implementation
/etc/init.d, Upstart, or
systemctl). But it's up to you whether you want to continue using
or switch back to
Here are the commands available if using the
sudo service tomcat status sudo service tomcat stop sudo service tomcat start sudo service tomcat restart
Configure Tomcat manager (optional)
This configuration can be used to make future upgrades through the Tomcat manager web interface. Make sure the file is
only readable by root and/or the user that runs Tomcat. Replace
<tomcat-users> <role rolename="manager-gui"/> <role rolename="manager-script"/> <role rolename="manager-jmx"/> <role rolename="manager-status"/> <user username="<MANAGER-GUI-USERNAME>" password="<GUI-PASSWORD>" roles="manager-gui"/> <user username="<MANAGER-SCRIPT-USERNAME>" password="<SCRIPT-PASSWORD>" roles="manager-script"/> </tomcat-users>
NOTE: Please don't use obvious passwords (i.e. tomcat, password, s3cret, etc) because your server will get exploited.